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Velocardio-Facial Syndrome

Source: 
Special Needs Database

Definition
VCFS is a genetic condition (associated with chromosome 22q11) that can impair almost every bodily function and occurs as often as one in every 2000 births. Although this syndrome is not widely known, it is thought to be second in frequency only to Down’s Syndrome.

Tuberculosis

Source: 
Special Needs Database

Definition
Tuberculosis (TB) is a highly infectious disease caused by the organism Mycobacterium Tuberculosis.

Causes
TB is caused by an infection of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. Malnutrition, crowding, poverty, and weak immune systems like those of infants and young children, all increase the likelihood of infection and its spread. TB is highly transmittable as it is spread through the air by coughing, sneezing, speaking, etc. For this reason, crowded areas such as orphanages are prime areas for transmission.

Tourette syndrome

Source: 
Special Needs Database

Definition
Tourette syndrome is a complex condition that arises during childhood or adolescence. It is characterized by repeated and involuntary body movements (tics). A tic is a sudden, rapid, stereotyped motor movement or vocalization. Tics can include eye blinking, repeated throat clearing or sniffing, arm thrusting, kicking movements, shoulder shrugging, or jumping.

Causes
Though a gene for Tourette syndrome has not been identified, there is strong evidence that it is an inherited disorder transmitted through one or more genes.

Syphilis

Definition
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease which is characterized by sores in the genital area or the mouth and/or lips.

Causes
Syphilis is passed from person to person through direct contact with the syphilis sores, or from mother to child during pregnancy. It cannot be spread through indirect contact such as toilet seats, doorknobs, or swimming pools. 

Syndactylism

Definition
Syndactylism is when the fingers or toes of an individual are fused together. This can include multiple digits and has various degrees of depth. The fusion can be only skin deep or go as deep as connected bones, blood vessels, and nerves. 

Causes
It is a congenital condition which the child is born with. It could be a genetic inherited trait or the result of a variety of rare genetic disorders. 

Stress in early life

Definition
Many children are placed for adoption as a result of unwanted pregnancies. These children may have been abandoned and some have been neglected and abused early in their lives. These situations cause stress for the child. Elevated stress levels, especially when sustained over a long period of time, have adverse effects on children. Stress has the potential to permanently impact the brain and body’s development.

Spina Bifida

Definition
Spina bifida is a condition where some of the vertebrae of the spinal cord are not completely formed and usually the spinal cord and its coverings protrude through the opening. In general, the three types of spina bifida (from mild to severe) are:

Schizophrenia

Definition
A severe chronic disease of the brain characterized by the occurrence of hallucinations, an inability to distinguish between reality and delusion, and emotional and social withdrawal.

Scabies

Definition
Scabies is an itchy rash spread by direct contact with the infection or by the mites themselves. The mites burrow beneath the skin and lay their eggs causing irritation to the skin in raised itchy bumps.

Causes
Scabies is passed through skin to skin contact and is therefore easily transmitted. It can often reach epidemic form in an institution or orphanage or even a household. It can also be passed through clothing or bedding if the mites remain on it, but this is less common.

Rickets

Definition
Rickets occurs when the body is lacking vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus and/or sunlight, which each play a part in building strong bones. With these deficiencies the individual, usually a child, develops weak bones. These weak bones become deformed under pressure, causing the characteristic visual result of rickets.

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