Special needs database

Prenatal exposure to maternal smoking

Causes
A mother smoking tobacco while pregnant.  This can often coincide with alcohol and drug use as well, which heightens the harmful effects.

Characteristics
Similar to prenatal drug exposure, tobacco use usually coincides with other substance abuse, so it is difficult to isolate the effects of smoking alone.  However, the following are symptoms associated with maternal smoking while pregnant:

Polydactylism

Definition
Polydactylism is when a person has more than five fingers or toes on each hand or foot. This extra digit can be anything from a small bump of tissue to an actual finger with a nail and bone. The extra finger or toe can grow on its own from the hand bone or off of another finger. The most common cases are those involving no bone and can be treated immediately at birth.

Causes
It is a congenital condition, which the child is born with. It could be a genetic inherited trait or the result of a variety of rare genetic disorders.

Mental disability

Definition
This term describes significant deficits in an individual's intellectual functioning and social adaptive behaviour originating during the developmental period from birth to 18 years old. The vast majority of people with a mental disability are in the mild range (IQ 50-70). Mental disability is not a disease and should not be confused with mental illness.

Causes
Causes of mental disability can be:

Lice

Source: 
AFABC Special Needs Database

Definition
Lice (plural) or louse (singular) are tiny parasitic insects. There are three different kinds, head lice, body lice, and pubic lice. They exist on the surface of the skin clinging to hair strands or fibres. Lice, like mosquitoes, often carry diseases and can transmit them to the host’s body.

Learning disability

Source: 
AFABC Special Needs Database

Definition
A learning disability (LD) is a disorder that affects people's ability to either interpret what they see and hear, or to link information from different parts of the brain. These limitations can show up in many ways, as specific difficulties with spoken and written language, coordination, self-control, or attention. LD can be a lifelong condition that, in some cases, affects many parts of a person's life: school or work, daily routines, family life, and sometimes even friendships and play.

Juvenile Diabetes

Source: 
AFABC Special Needs Database

Definition
Diabetes is a long-life disease marked by elevated levels of sugar in the blood. It can be caused by too little insulin (a chemical produced by the pancreas to regulate blood sugar), resistance to insulin, or both. There are three major types of diabetes:

Type 1 diabetes: is usually diagnosed in childhood. The body makes little or no insulin, and daily injections of insulin are required to sustain life. Without proper daily management, medical emergencies can arise.

Intestinal parasites

Source: 
AFABC Special Needs Database

Definition
A parasitic infection of the intestinal area in which the invading parasite lives in and survives off the host’s body. The parasite will take what it needs with no regard to the host, which results in illness or at least discomfort for most people.   

Institutionalization

Source: 
AFABC Special Needs Database

Definition
The placement of a child in an institution, such as an orphanage or group home, usually characterized by a large number of children and few caregivers. Unfortunately there is commonly a lack of financial resources, and caregivers, which leads to a number of problems for the children in their care.

Causes
A lack of staff, resources, and money creates a situation in which the children do not receive the type of care they need to thrive.

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